Reference List

AmazonWatch 2011, Amazon Watch: Standing with Indigenous peoples, defending the rainforest, online video, youtube, viewed 18 October 2011,
Berry, W nd. ‘Conserving communities’, viewed, 9 October 2011,
Bridge, G 2002, ‘Grounding globalization: The prospects and perils of linking economic processes of globalization to environmental outcomes’, Economic Geography, vol.78, no. 3, pp. 361-86, viewed 8 October 2011,

Calvano, L 2008, ‘Multinational corporations and local communities: A critical analysis of conflict’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 793-805, viewed 10 October 2011,
Carson, R 2001, ‘The other road’, xvii, Silent Spring, Penguin, United Kingdom, viewed 10 October 2011, Jenkins, R 2005, ‘Globalization, corporate social responsibility and poverty: Critical perspective on corporate social responsibility’, International Affairs, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 525-40, viewed 1 October 2011, http://www.jstor/stable/3569632
Leve, L 2011, ‘Identity’, Current Anthropology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 513-35, viewed 6 October 2011,
Schofer, E & Granados, FJ 2006, ‘Environmentalism, globalization and national economics, 1980-2000’, Social Forces, vol. 85, no. 2. Pp. 965-91, viewed 3 October 2011,

Singer, P 1972, ‘Famine, affluence and morality’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 1. no. 3, pp. 229-43, viewed 6 October 2011,
Tacconi, L 2007, ‘Decentralization, forests and livelihoods: Theory and narrative,’ Global Environmental Change, vol. 17, pp. 338-48, viewed 3 October 2011,
Thoreau, HD 1995, ‘Economy’, in J Boss & D Widger (eds.), Walden, The Project Guttenberg, ebook, viewed 6 October 2011, http://www.gutenberg/files/205/205-h/205/h.htm.    

Veksler, D 2007, ‘The one minute case against environmentalism’, weblog, viewed 17 October 2011,
Zed36marc1141MVP 2008, Rainforest destruction, online video, youtube, viewed 20 October 2011,

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Globalisation and the Environment……..

In conclusion, the significance of the chosen primary text, was to balance environmental concerns with globalisation issues. By analysing arguments from different perspectives, supported by background readings and journal articles. Viewing these perspectives as either for or against environmental outcomes or globalisation processes. There was an interconnection between both, which reflects the issues in contemporary life. The key texts were subtly used to provoke or elevate further thought, through insightful ways to consider contemporary problems.

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Globalisation and the Environment continued

Verksler (2007) in his blog, is against environmentalism. He argues that, “Capitalism is the solution to environmental destruction”. He relies on a leading economist, Cordato, who states; “it is not capitalism that destroys the environment but lack of property rights”. Verksler continues by arguing that environmentalists are only interested in the natural environment as a moral value. Their goal being to bring down the industrial world and the majority of people, who exist because of industrialisation.
The strength of the argument is used to polarise two extremes to make his point. He also argues that through human reason and technology problems can be solved. The weakness of the argument, is that human reason and technology have not been backed up with evidence to make their claim more substantial. Another weakness is that the argument is from a capitalist perspective.
Tacconi (2007), suggests that even with the use of land (property rights), sustainability may out weight conservation. Decentralisation and forest management, does not always led to forest protection. This depends on who own’s the land and how it is to be used.
However, Leve (2011) counter argues, that Indigenous identity is directly linked to their environment (the land). She sees identity as a contemporary issue, that has been recognised through international agencies and human rights organisations. Identity is often synonymous with Indigenous culture itself. Therefore, Indigenous identity is interconnected with the global environment.
Singer (1972) views the ever-expanding world as a “Global Village”, whereby we all have a moral responsibility. Therefore, “if we can prevent something bad from happening it is our moral obligation to do so”.

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More on Globalisation and the Environment

Amazon Watch: Standing with Indigenous Peoples defending the rainforest.

This second clip gives an explicit global voice to Indigenous concerns about environmental degradation and the effects of pollution on the environment. As well as the effects this has on Indigenous livelihood and wellbeing, by international investors. The clip has both voice over and visual images. Showing the rainforest, and telling us of its uses for medicine, oxygen, water, food and life. Drawing on the power of these images.
The clip argues that the Amazon is in danger from industrial civilisation’s ferocious appetite for resources. This is depicted by flashing images of different industries. Further supported by images of logging, mining and oil drilling. While building dams, large plantations for palm oil and cattle grazing. The vocals emphasise that deforestation, will increase and release more CO2 than all the cars in New York. Picture of different Indigenous people of the Amazon are shown and described as forest guardians, defending their culture and communities, while protecting the rainforest and supported by global organisations.
The strength of the argument is portrayed through the use of visual images, showing pollution and degradation by international companies and the effects this has on the environment and its indigenous people. The weakness of the clip could be seen through the use of a western voice instead of an Indigenous person.
Calvano (2008) supports the clip, by arguing that multinational companies lack of communication and consideration for Indigenous communities and their culture, has led to environmental degradation. He suggests that cultural sensitivity is a key factor in globalisation for international companies.
Jenkins (2005) argues that, the positive side of globalism has created networks and dissemination of information. By increasing public awareness and with this, the ability to mount campaigns in diverse regions of the world, against unjust practice. Berry (nd.) is against globalisation, because of the destruction to local productivity. The local agricultural industry of western countries has been devastated by taking much of its production capacity out of the country. This has caused ecological, social and cultural problems for all countries involved. Thus; he emphasises, “local economy for local communities”.
Carson (2001), in Silent Spring sums the reality of contemporary life; “We stand now where two roads diverge, one the superhighway on which progress has developed at great speed…The other, less travelled, assures the preservation of our Earth, by looking at alternatives open to us”.

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Rainforest Deforestation


This Clip is a visual representation, overlaid with written dialog, showing images of deforestation of the Amazon’s natural environment. The clip draws on explicit images to make its point. By depicting the cutting and burning of nature. It argues that, the reason for deforestation is because of ranging, logging and industries. Using these images to clarify the point. The text written towards the end of the clip states: protect and preserve our planet, earth is dying, further intensifying the overall message.
The strength of this clip is through the powerful use of images to provoke a response in the viewer. A weakness is the presentation shows only the negative aspects of deforestation. In support of this clip, Schofer and Granados (2006) argue that until economic values, through globalisation are changed to enhance environmental practice, degradation will continue. Bridge (2002), further suggests the search for lower-cost production in developing countries will leed to pollutant-intensive industries, while progressively degrading the environment. However, his counter argument being, that through globalisation, international environmental practice, and multinational investment will provide and enhance cleaner technology.
Therefore, in the words of Thoreau, “beauty is cultivated out-of-doors”.

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Globalisation and the Environment

Globalisation and the Environment provide a contemporary problem; identified through deforestation and environmental degradation of the Amazon. This problem effects both natural environments and its Indigenous people’s. This issue is exacerbated by international exploitation for natural resources and the growth of national economies in the Amazon region.

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